What Components Make Up A Private Well?

Private Well Components

There are a number of different parts that make up a private well. Provided below is a list of basic well components and a summary of their functions.


A well cap is placed over the top of a well opening. This prevents insects, small animals, and debris from falling into the well. They are usually made of plastic or aluminum and include a vent to control the pressure while the well is pumping.


The well casing is a tube placed within the well to maintain its opening and keep the walls from collapsing in on themselves. Additionally, the casing helps keep soil and excess water out of the well and assists in stopping contaminants from entering the water supply. Well casings can be made of plastic, carbon steel, or stainless steel. However, the local geology will ultimately determine what material can be used for the casing.


A well screen is attached to the bottom of the casing. This prevents sediment from building up within the well itself. Perforated pipe, slotted pipe, and continuous slot are the most common types of well screen.


There are two main types of pumps used in private water wells - Jet Pumps and Submersible Pumps. A jet pump is the most common type of pump used in a shallow well. These pumps are mounted above ground and suction is used to draw water out of the well. Submersible pumps are used for deep wells. A submersible pump is located inside the well casing and is hooked up to a power source on the surface.

Pitless Adaptor

The pitless adaptor is a connector that allows the pipe supplying water to the surface to be located below the frost line. It also ensures that a seal, for sanitary and frost proof purposes, is maintained. The adaptor will divert water horizontally to prevent it from freezing during cold temperatures.

Guardian Well and Septic Inspections is more than happy to answer your questions about the different parts of a private water well. If you have any questions about private wells, septic systems, or to schedule an inspection, please contact us today!

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